A bile duct
is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile
, and is present in most vertebrate
Bile, required for the digestion
of food, is secreted by the liver
into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct
, which joins with the cystic duct
(carrying bile to and from the gallbladder
) to form the common bile duct
, which opens into the intestine
The biliary tree
(see below) is the whole network of various sized ducts branching through the liver.
The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts →
left and right hepatic ducts merge to form → common hepatic duct exits liver and joins → cystic duct
(from gall bladder
) forming → common bile duct → joins with pancreatic duct → forming ampulla of Vater → enters duodenum
The bile duct is green like the gallbladder, because of bile stains.
Inflation of a balloon in the bile duct causes, through the vagus nerve
, activation of the brain stem
and the insular cortex
, prefrontal cortex
, and somatosensory cortex
. Sai JK, Suyama M, Kubokawa Y, Matsumura Y, Inami K, Watanabe S, Kirino E. (2010). Identification of cerebral response to balloon distention of the bile duct.
World J Gastroenterol. 16(14):1772-5.
Blockage of the bile duct by gallstone
ring from injury, or cancer
prevents the bile from being transported to the intestine and the active ingredient in the bile ( bilirubin
) instead accumulates in the blood
. This condition results in jaundice
, where the skin
become yellow from the bilirubin in the blood. This condition also causes severe itchiness from the bilirubin deposited in the tissues. In certain types of jaundice, the urine will be noticeably darker, and the stools will be much paler than usual. This is caused by the bilirubin all going to the bloodstream and being filtered into the urine by the kidneys, instead of some being lost in the stools through the ampulla of Vater
is commonly caused by conditions such as pancreatic cancer
, which causes blockage of the bile duct passing through the cancerous portion of the pancreas; cholangiocarcinoma
, cancer of the bile ducts; blockage by a stone in patients with gallstone
s; and from scarring after injury to the bile duct during gallbladder removal.
Biliary drainage is performed with a tube or catheter (called a biliary drain
, biliary stent
or biliary catheter
) by a surgeon
or, commonly, an interventional radiologist
Patient information from The Ohio State University Medical Center. Retrieved May 2011 It can be used to relieve a blockage in the bile duct, either permanently or as a temporary solution before definite treatment such as surgery. The drain can be placed percutaneous
ly through the liver, with the procedure then being called percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage
(PTBD). This can additionally be performed as part of a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
, then a form of interventional radiology
. A biliary drain can also be used to take bile samples for diagnostic workup or disease monitoring, as well as providing a route of administration
for medical substances.
In infants with biliary atresia
is an alternative method of providing bile drainage.
or bile duct cancer is a form of cancer that is composed of mutated epithelial
cells (or cells showing characteristics of epithelial differentiation) that originate in the bile ducts. Cholangiocarcinoma is considered to be an incurable and rapidly lethal cancer unless both the primary tumor and any metastases
can be fully removed by surgery. No potentially curative treatment exists except surgery, but most people have advanced stage disease at presentation and are inoperable at the time of diagnosis.
File:3DPrinted biliary system 20151201.jpg|3D Printed biliary system.
File:Gray1093.png|Section across portal canal of pig. ×250.
File:Laprascopy-Roentgen.jpg | An intraoperative cholangiogram, which is an X-Ray of the bile ducts during a laprascopic cholecystectomy.
File:Slide54ior.JPG|Bile duct.Deep dissection.Anterior view.