Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people. In normal healthy men, the total body water is about 60% of the total body weight; it is slightly lower in women. A 70 kg (160 pound) man, then, has 42 liters of water in his body. This is divided between ICF and ECF in a two-to-one ratio: 28 liters are inside cells and 14 liters are outside cells. This ECF compartment is divided into the fluid between cells - the interstitial fluid volume - and the vascular volume, also called the blood plasma volume. The vascular volume is divided into the venous volume and the arterial volume; and the arterial volume has a conceptually useful but unmeasurable subcompartment called the effective arterial blood volumePalmer, Chapter 38,Pathophysiology of sodium retention and wastage, in Seldin and Giebisch’s The Kidney, Fifth Edition. Page 1511-12. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-381462-3.00037-9. 2013 Elsevier Inc. (c) All rights reserved. There are approximately 6 to 10 liters of lymph in the body, compared to 3.5 to 5 liters of blood.
List of body fluidsBy type:
- Intracellular fluid
- Extracellular fluid
- * Intravascular fluid (blood plasma)
- * Interstitial fluid
- * Lymphatic fluid (sometimes included in interstitial fluid)
- * Transcellular fluid
HealthBody fluid is the term most often used in medical and health contexts. Modern medical, public health, and personal hygiene practices treat body fluids as potentially unclean. This is because they can be vectors for infectious diseases, such as sexually transmitted diseases or blood-borne diseases. Universal precautions and safer sex practices try to avoid exchanges of body fluids. Body fluids can be analyzed in medical laboratory in order to find microbes, inflammation, cancers, etc.
Clinical samplesClinical samples are generally defined as non-infectious human or animal materials including blood, saliva, excreta, body tissue and tissue fluids, and also FDA-approved pharmaceuticals that are blood products. Packaging Guidelines for Clinical Samples - Retrieved 7 August 2014. In medical contexts, it is a specimen taken for diagnostic examination or evaluation, and for identification of disease or condition. specimen - www.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 7 August 2014
SamplingMethods of sampling of body fluids include:
- Blood sampling for any blood test, in turn including:
- * Arterial blood sampling, such as radial artery puncture
- * Venous blood sampling, also called venipuncture
- Lumbar puncture to sample cerebrospinal fluid
- Thoracocentesis to sample pleural fluid
- Amniocentesis to sample amniotic fluid
Body fluids in artA relatively new trend in contemporary art is to use body fluids in art, though there have been rarer uses of blood (and perhaps feces) for quite some time, and Marcel Duchamp used semen decades ago. Examples include:
- The controversial Piss Christ (1987), by Andres Serrano, which is a photograph of a crucifix submerged in urine;
- In Janine Antoni's Conduit (2009) she created a copper cast gargoyle device that she could pee through on the top of the Chrysler Building, Antoni's urine acting as the patina.
- Andy Warhol's Oxidations series, begun in 1977, in which he invited friends to urinate onto a canvas of metallic copper pigments, so that the uric acid would oxidize into abstract patterns;
- Self (1991, recast 1996) by Marc Quinn, a frozen cast of the artist's head made entirely of his own blood;
- Piss Flowers, by Helen Chadwick (1991–92), are twelve white-enameled bronzes cast from cavities made by urinating in snow (though this might not be characterized as the use of bodily fluids in art, just their use in preparation);
- performances by Lennie Lee involving feces, blood, vomit from 1990
- many paintings by Chris Ofili, which make use of elephant dung (from 1992).
- Gilbert and George's The Naked Shit Pictures (1995)
- Hermann Nitsch and Das Orgien Mysterien Theatre use urine, feces, blood and more in their ritual performances.
- Franko B from 1990 blood letting performances.
- The cover of the Metallica's album Load is an original artwork entitled "Semen and Blood III", one of three photographic studies by Andres Serrano created in 1990 by mingling the artist's own semen and bovine blood between two sheets of Plexiglas.
- Blood-borne diseases
- Clinical pathology
- Fluid bonding, unprotected sex in long-term relationships
- Ritual cleanliness
- Paul Spinrad. (1999) The RE/Search Guide to Bodily Fluids. Juno Books.
- John Bourke. (1891) Rites of All Nations. Washington, D.C.: W.H. Lowdermilk.