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Carboxylation

Carboxylation in chemistry is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is introduced in a substrate. The opposite reaction is decarboxylation.

Carboxylation in organic chemistry

In organic chemistry many different protocols exist for carboxylation. One general approach is by reaction of nucleophiles with dry ice (solid carbon dioxide)''REGIO- AND STEREOSELECTIVE CARBOXYLATION OF ALLYLIC BARIUM REAGENTS: (E)-4,8-DIMETHYL-3,7-NONADIENOIC ACID Akira Yanagisawa, Katsutaka Yasue, and Hisashi Yamamoto1 Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 9, p.317 (1998); Vol. 74, p.178 (1997) link. or formic acid1-ADAMANTANECARBOXYLIC ACID H. Koch and W. Haaf Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 5, p.20 (1973); Vol. 44, p.1 (1964) Link.1-METHYLCYCLOHEXANECARBOXYLIC ACID W. Haaf Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 5, p.739 (1973); Vol. 46, p.72 (1966). An example is the Kolbe–Schmitt reaction. Carboxylation catalysts are N-Heterocyclic carbenes N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC)–copper-catalysed transformations of carbon dioxide Liang Zhang and Zhaomin Hou Chem. Sci., 2013,4, 3395-3403 and catalysts based on silver.Silver-catalyzed carboxylation'' K. Sekine and T. Yamada Chem. Soc. Rev., 2016,

Carboxylation in biochemistry

Carboxylation in biochemistry is a posttranslational modification of glutamate residues, to γ-carboxyglutamate, in proteins. It occurs primarily in proteins involved in the blood clotting cascade, specifically factors II, VII, IX, and X, protein C, and protein S, and also in some bone proteins. This modification is required for these proteins to function. Carboxylation occurs in the liver and is performed by γ-glutamyl carboxylase.OMIM - gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, contributed by McKusick VA, last updated October 2004 linkhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=137167 The carboxylase requires vitamin K as a cofactor and performs the reaction in a processive manner. γ-carboxyglutamate binds calcium, which is essential for its activity. For example, in prothrombin, calcium binding allows the protein to associate with the plasma membrane in platelets, bringing it into close proximity with the proteins that cleave prothrombin to active thrombin after injury.Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry, 5th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 2002.

References

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This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxylation, the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carboxylation&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany