are a mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa butter
is extracted from cacao bean
s. When sold as an end product, it may also be called cocoa powder
. Cocoa solids are a key ingredient of chocolate
, chocolate syrup
, and chocolate confection
s. In contrast, the fatty component of chocolate
is cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties. Cocoa liquor
or cocoa mass
is a paste of roasted cocoa beans with cocoa butter and solids in their natural proportions. Recipes for chocolate require the addition of extra cocoa butter to cocoa liquor, leading to a cocoa solids surplus and thus a relatively cheap supply of cocoa powder. This contrasts with the earliest European usage of cocoa where, before milk and dark chocolate was popularized, cocoa powder was the primary product and cocoa butter was little more than a waste product.
Cocoa solids contain flavanol antioxidant
s, amounts of which are reduced if the cocoa is subjected to acid-reducing alkalization. Health benefits have been attributed to cocoa flavonoids.
cocoa (left) compared to natural cocoa (right)]]
Natural cocoa powder has a light brown color and an extractable pH
of 5.3 to 5.8. The processed (alkalized) cocoa powder is darker in color, ranging from brownish red to nearly black, with a pH from 6.8 to 8.1. The alkalization process reduces bitterness and improves solubility, which is important for beverage product applications. All of these pH values are considered safe for food use. Materials Handled Cocoa Powder: Overview
. Retrieved: 2 April 2014.
Cocoa powder contains several minerals including calcium
. All of these minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either cocoa butter or cocoa liquor. Cocoa solids also contain 230 mg of caffeine
and 2057 mg of theobromine
per 100g, which are mostly absent from the other components of the cocoa bean. Cocoa solids also contain clovamide
Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoid
s, a subset of polyphenol
s. The amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes. Alkalization, also known as Dutch processing
, causes its content of flavonoids to be substantially reduced.
Cocoa and cacao powders products may contain cadmium
, a toxic heavy metal and probable carcinogen
. From January 1 2019, the European Union
will impose a limit for cadmium in cocoa powders of 0.6 µg per gram of cocoa powder, and 0.8 µg per gram for chocolate with >= 50% total dry cocoa solids. In Canada, a daily serving of a natural health product must contain no more than 6 µg of cadmium for an individual weighing and 3 µg for a individual. While the U.S. government has not set a limit for cadmium in foods or health products, the state of California
has established a maximum allowable daily level of oral cadmium exposure of 4.1 µg, and requires products containing more than this amount per daily serving to bear a warning on the label. One investigation by an independent consumer testing laboratory found that seven of nine commercially available cocoa powders and nibs selected for testing contained more than 0.3 µg of cadmium per serving gram; five of these products exceeded the proposed EU limit of 0.6 µg per gram.