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Hydrogenosome

[[File:Hydrogenosom.svg|thumb|right|370px|Abb.1: Model of ATP-synthesis in hydrogenosomes. abb.: CoA = Coenzyme A]]A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals. The hydrogenosomes of trichomonads (the most studied of the hydrogenosome-containing microorganisms) produce molecular hydrogen, acetate, carbon dioxide and ATP by the combined actions of , hydrogenase, and succinate thiokinase. Superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin, adenylate kinase and are also localized in the hydrogenosome. It is nearly universally accepted that hydrogenosomes evolved from mitochondria. In 2010, scientists reported their discovery of the first known anaerobic metazoans with hydrogenosome-like organelles.

History

Hydrogenosomes were isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and named in the early 1970s by D. G. Lindmark and M. Müller at Rockefeller University. In addition to this seminal study on hydrogenosomes, they also demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxido-reductase and hydrogenase in eukaryotes. Further studies were subsequently conducted on the biochemical cytology and subcellular organization of anaerobic protozoan parasites ( Trichomonas vaginalis, Tritrichomonas foetus, Monocercomonas sp., Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba sp., and Hexamita inflata). Using information obtained from hydrogenosomal and biochemical cytology studies these researchers determined the mode of action of metronidazole (Flagyl) in 1976. Metronidazole is today recognized as the gold standard chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of anaerobic infections caused by prokaryotes ( Clostridium, Bacteroides, Helicobacter) and eukaryotes (Trichomonas, Tritrichomonas, Giardia, Entamoeba). Metronidazole is taken up by diffusion. Once taken up by anaerobes, it is non-enzymatically reduced by reduced ferredoxin which is produced by the action of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxido-reductase. This reduction creates products toxic to the anaerobic cell, and allows for selective accumulation of the drug in anaerobes.

Description

Hydrogenosomes are approximately 1 micrometre in diameter but under stress conditions can reach up to 2 micrometre and are so called because they produce molecular hydrogen. Like mitochondria, they are bound by distinct double membranes and one has an inner membrane with some cristae-like projections. Hydrogenosomes have evolved from mitochondria by loss of aerobiosis-related features in several lineages (not all hydrogenosomes are directly related).Embley TM. (2006) ''Multiple secondary origins of the anaerobic lifestyle in eukaryotes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361(1470):1055-67. Review. In most cases, hydrogenosomes are genomeless, though genomes have persisted in some lineages such as Neocallimastix, Trichomonas vaginalis or Tritrichomonas foetus. However, a hydrogenosomal genome has been detected in the cockroach ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis, and the stramenopile Blastocystis. The similarity between Nyctotherus and Blastocystis'', which are only distantly related, is believed to be the result of convergent evolution, and calls into question whether there is a clear-cut distinction between mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, and mitosomes (another kind of degenerate mitochondria).

Sources

The best studied hydrogenosomes are those of the sexually transmitted parasites Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus and those from rumen chytrids such as Neocallimastix. The anaerobic ciliated protozoan Nyctotherus ovalis, found in the hindgut of several species of cockroach, has numerous hydrogenosomes that are intimately associated with endosymbiotic methane-producing archaea, the latter using the hydrogen produced by the hydrogenosomes. The matrix of N. ovalis hydrogenosomes contains ribosome-like particles of the same size as a numerous type of ribosome (70s) of the endosymbiotic methanogenic archaea. This suggested the presence of an organellar genome which was indeed discovered by Akhmanova and later partly sequenced by Boxma. Three multicellular species of Loricifera Spinoloricus nov. sp., Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp. — have been found deep in Mediterranean sediments, and use hydrogenosomes in their anaerobic metabolism cycle.{{Cite journal | last = Fang | first = Janet | title = Animals thrive without oxygen at sea bottom | journal = Nature | volume = 464 | issue = 7290 | pages = 825 | publisher = Nature Publishing Group | date = April 6, 2010 | url = http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100406/full/464825b.html | doi = 10.1038/464825b | accessdate = April 6, 2010 | pmid = 20376121 }}

In simple terms

One of the reasons that hydrogenosomes are of interest is because of the light they can cast on how life on earth may have evolved. Most life on earth is single celled, like bacteria (and archaea). By contrast, plants and animals are made up of many cells. Crucially, each cell of a plant or animal is organised very differently from a bacterial cell. Amongst other things, animal and plant cells (which are special cases of what is known as ‘eukaryotic’ cells) contain mitochondria. Mitochondria are like power stations for cells. They supply power by ‘burning’ carbohydrates and other fuels in oxygen to replenish ATP molecules. ATP molecules are rechargeable chemical batteries used throughout the cell. Mitochondria produce carbon dioxide and water as waste. Some primitive single-celled eukaryotes live in places where oxygen is scarce or non-existent. In these circumstances, mitochondria cannot work, so some eukaryotic cells make use of hydrogenosomes instead to produce ATP. Hydrogenosomes are able to ‘burn’ carbohydrates and other fuels to produce ATP without using oxygen. As part of this distinctive process, their waste products are carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The fact that they produce hydrogen gives them their name. Hydrogenosomes are considered to be of great scientific interest because comparing them with mitochondria may cast light on how all eukaryotic cells evolved. For example: which came first - mitochondria or hydrogenosomes – or some common ancestor? For this reason, studying hydrogenosomes may shed light on how all multi-celled life evolved.

See also

References

"green air" © 2007 - Ingo Malchow, Webdesign Neustrelitz
This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogenosome, the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hydrogenosome&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany