On Air

Investment

Buy this Domain?
Do you interesting about this domain and the running project?
Feel free to send your offer to webmaster.
pay with Paypal

Advertising

Inositol

|Section2={{Chembox Properties | C=6 | H=12 | O=6 | MolarMass = 180.16 g/mol | Density = 1.752 g/cm3 | MeltingPtC = 225 to 227 | MeltingPt_notes = }} |Section6={{Chembox Pharmacology | ATCCode_prefix = A11 | ATCCode_suffix = HA07 }} |Section7={{Chembox Hazards | NFPA-H = 1 | NFPA-F = 0 | NFPA-R = 0 | FlashPtC = 143 }} }} Inositol or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol is a chemical compound with formula 6126 or (-CHOH-)6, a derivative of cyclohexane with six hydroxyl groups, making it a polyol (multiple alcohol). It exists in nine possible stereoisomers, of which cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, or myo-inositol (former names meso-inositol or i-inositol), is the most widely occurring form in nature. Synonyms in PubChem Synonyms in Commonchemistry.org Inositol is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar). Myo-Inositol plays an important role as the structural basis for a number of secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells, the various inositol phosphates. In addition, inositol serves as an important component of the structural lipids phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its various phosphates, the phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids. Inositol or its phosphates and associated lipids are found in many foods, in particular fruit, especially cantaloupe and oranges. In plants, the hexaphosphate of inositol, phytic acid or its salts, the phytates, serve as phosphate stores in seed, for example in nuts and beans. Phytic acid also occurs in cereals with high bran content. Phytate is, however, not directly bioavailable to humans in the diet, since it is not digestible. Some food preparation techniques partly break down phytates to change this. However, inositol in the form of glycerophospholipids, as found in certain plant-derived substances such as lecithins is well-absorbed and relatively bioavailable. Myo-inositol (free of phosphate) was once considered a member of the vitamin B complex, called Vitamin B8 in this context. However, because it is produced by the human body from glucose, it is not an essential nutrient.

Isomers and structure

The isomer myo-inositol is a meso compound, and hence optically inactive, because it has a plane of symmetry. For this reason, meso-inositol is an obsolete name for this compound. Besides myo-inositol, the other naturally occurring stereoisomers are scyllo-, muco-, In its most stable conformation, the myo-inositol isomer assumes the chair conformation, which moves the maximum number of hydroxyls to the equatorial position, where they are farthest apart from each other. In this conformation, the natural myo isomer has a structure in which five of the six hydroxyls (the first, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth) are equatorial, whereas the second hydroxyl group is axial.

Biosynthesis

Myo-Inositol is synthesized from glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) in two steps. First, G-6-P is isomerised by an inositol-3-phosphate synthase enzyme (for example, ISYNA1) to myo-inositol 1-phosphate, which is then dephosphorylated by an inositol monophosphatase enzyme (for example, IMPA1) to give free myo-inositol. In humans, most inositol is synthesized in the kidneys, typically in amounts of a few grams per day.

Function

Inositol, phosphatidylinositol and some of their mono- and polyphosphates function as secondary messengers in a number of intracellular signal transduction pathways. They are involved in a number of biological processes, including: In one important family of pathways, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is stored in cellular membranes until it is released by any of a number of signalling proteins and transformed into various second messengers, for example diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate.

Phytic acid in plants

Inositolhexaphosphate, also called phytic acid or IP6, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seed. Phytic acid Phosphorus and inositol in phytate form are not generally bioavailable to non ruminant animals because these animals lack the digestive enzyme phytase required to remove the phosphate groups. Ruminants are readily able to digest phytate because of the phytase produced by rumen microorganisms. Moreover, phytic acid also chelates important minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc, making them unabsorbable, and contributing to mineral deficiencies in people whose diets rely highly on bran and seeds for their mineral intake, such as occurs in developing countries. Inositol penta- (IP5), tetra- (IP4), and triphosphate (IP3) are also called "phytates".

Use in explosives manufacture

At the 1936 meeting of the American Chemical Society, professor Edward Bartow of the University of Iowa presented a commercially viable means of extracting large amounts of inositol from the phytic acid naturally present in waste corn. As a possible use for the chemical, he suggested 'inositol nitrate' as a more stable alternative to nitroglycerin.Laurence, William L. "Corn by-product yields explosive", The New York Times. April 17, 1936. Page 7. Today, inositol nitrate is used to gelatinize nitrocellulose, thus can be found in many modern explosives and solid rocket propellants.Ledgard, Jared. The Preparatory Manual of Explosives, 2007. p. 366.

Counter to road salt

When plants are exposed to increasing concentrations of road salt, the plant cells become dysfunctional and undergo apoptosis, leading to inhibited growth. Inositol pretreatment could reverse these effects.

Research and clinical applications

Large doses of inositol have been studied for treatment of depression, but insufficient evidence exists to determine whether this is an effective treatment. Inositol is effective in the management of preterm babies who have or are at a risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Inositol is considered a safe and effective treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It works by increasing insulin sensitivity, which helps to improve ovarian function and reduce hyperandrogenism. It is also shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease in people with PCOS.

Use as a cutting agent

Inositol has been used as an adulterant or cutting agent for many illegal drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and sometimes heroin,http://feedadditivechina.com/6-16-inositol.html probably because of its solubility, powdery texture, or reduced sweetness (50%) compared to more common sugars. Inositol is also used as a stand-in for cocaine in television shows and in film.

Nutritional sources

Myo-Inositol is naturally present in a variety of foods, although tables of food composition do not always distinguish between lecithin, the bioavailable form, and the unavailable phytate form in grains. Foods containing the highest concentrations of myo-inositol (including its compounds) include fruits, beans, grains, and nuts. Beans and grains, however, contain large amounts of phytate.

References

External links

"green air" © 2007 - Ingo Malchow, Webdesign Neustrelitz
This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol, the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Inositol&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany