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Isabella I of Castile

| reign-type1 = Tenure | reign1 = 20 January 1479 – | spouse = Ferdinand II of Aragon | issue = {{plainlist| }} | issue-link = #Family | issue-pipe = among others... | house = Trastámara | father = John II of Castile | mother = Isabella of Portugal | birth_date = 22 April 1451 | birth_place = Madrigal de las Altas Torres | death_date = | death_place = Medina del Campo | burial_date = | burial_place = Royal Chapel of Granada | signature = Isabella I of Castile Signature.svg | religion = Roman Catholic }} Isabella I (, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles I. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects, and for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus' 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World and to the establishment of Spain as the first global power which dominated Europe and much of the world for more than a century. Isabella, granted together with her husband the title "the Catholic" by Pope Alexander VI, was recognized as a Servant of God by the Catholic Church in 1974.

Life and reign

Early years

Isabella was born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila, to John II of Castile and Isabella of Portugal on 22 April 1451.Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl, Women Rulers throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide, (ABC-CLIO, 1999), 180. At the time of her birth, she was second in line to the throne after her older half-brother Henry IV of Castile. Henry was 26 at that time and married, but childless. Her younger brother Alfonso of Castile was born two years later on 17 November 1453, lowering her position to third in line.Weissberger,Barbara, "Queen Isabel I of Castile Power, Patronage, Persona." Tamesis, Woodbridge, 2008, p. 20–21 When her father died in 1454, her half-brother ascended to the throne as King Henry IV of Castile. Isabella and her brother Alfonso were left in King Henry's care.Prescott, William. History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, The Catholic. J.B Lippincott & Co., 1860, p. 28 She, her mother, and Alfonso then moved to Arévalo.Prescott, William. History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, The Catholic. J.B Lippincott & CO., 1860, p. 83 These were times of turmoil for Isabella. The living conditions at their castle in Arévalo were poor, and they suffered from a shortage of money. Although her father arranged in his will for his children to be financially well taken care of, King Henry did not comply with their father's wishes, either from a desire to keep his half-siblings restricted, or from ineptitude. Even though living conditions were lackluster, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in a deep reverence for religion. When the King's wife, Joan of Portugal, was about to give birth to their daughter Joanna, Isabella and her brother Alfonso were summoned to court in Segovia to come under the direct supervision of the King and to finish their education. Alfonso was placed in the care of a tutor while Isabella became part of the Queen's household.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 52 Some of Isabella's living conditions improved in Segovia. She always had food and clothing and lived in a castle that was adorned with gold and silver. Isabella's basic education consisted of reading, spelling, writing, grammar, mathematics, art, chess, dancing, embroidery, music, and religious instruction. She and her ladies-in-waiting entertained themselves with art, embroidery, and music. She lived a relaxed lifestyle, but she rarely left Segovia as King Henry forbade this. Her half-brother was keeping her from the political turmoils going on in the kingdom, though Isabella had full knowledge of what was going on and of her role in the feuds. The noblemen, anxious for power, confronted King Henry, demanding that his younger half-brother Infante Alfonso be named his successor. They even went so far as to ask Alfonso to seize the throne. The nobles, now in control of Alfonso and claiming that he was the true heir, clashed with King Henry's forces at the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467. The battle was a draw. King Henry agreed to recognize Alfonso as his heir presumptive, provided that he would marry his daughter, Princess Joanna la Beltraneja.Prescott, William. History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, The Catholic. J.B Lippincott & CO., 1860, p. 85–87 Soon after he was named Prince of Asturias, Isabella's younger brother Alfonso died in July 1468, likely of the plague. The nobles who had supported him suspected poisoning. As she had been named in her brother's will as his successor, the nobles asked Isabella to take his place as champion of the rebellion. However, support for the rebels had begun to wane, and Isabella preferred a negotiated settlement to continuing the war.Prescott, William. History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, The Catholic. J.B Lippincott & CO., 1860, p. 93–94 She met with her elder brother Henry at Toros de Guisando and they reached a compromise: the war would stop, King Henry would name Isabella his heir-presumptive instead of his daughter Joanna, and Isabella would not marry without her brother's consent, but he would not be able to force her to marry against her will.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 68 Isabella's side came out with most of what the nobles desired, though they did not go so far as to officially depose King Henry; they were not powerful enough to do so, and Isabella did not want to jeopardize the principle of fair inherited succession, since it was upon this idea that she had based her argument for legitimacy as heir-presumptive.

Marriage

The question of Isabella's marriage was not a new one, she had made her debut in the matrimonial market at the tender age of six with a betrothal to Ferdinand, the younger son of John II of Aragon (whose family was a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara). At that time, the two kings, Henry and John, were eager to show their mutual love and confidence and they believed that this double alliance would make their eternal friendship obvious to the world.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 35 This arrangement, however, did not last long. Ferdinand's uncle Alfonso V of Aragon died in 1458. All of Alfonso's Spanish territories, as well as the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, were left to his brother John II. John now had a stronger position than ever before and no longer needed the security of Henry's friendship. Henry was now in need of a new alliance. He saw the chance for this much needed new friendship in Charles of Viana, John's elder son.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 36–39 Charles was constantly at odds with his father, and because of this, he secretly entered into an alliance with Henry IV of Castile. A major part of the alliance was that a marriage was to be arranged between Charles and Isabella. When John II learned of this arranged marriage he was outraged. Isabella had been intended for his favourite younger son, Ferdinand, and in his eyes this alliance was still valid. John II had his son Charles thrown in prison on charges of plotting against his father's life; Charles died in 1461.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 39-40 In 1465, an attempt was made to marry Isabella to Alfonso V of Portugal, Henry's brother-in-law. Through the medium of the Queen and Count of Ledesma, a Portuguese alliance was made.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 5 Isabella, however, was wary of the marriage and refused to consent.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 53 A civil war broke out in Castile over King Henry's inability to act as sovereign. Henry now needed a quick way to please the rebels of the kingdom. As part of an agreement to restore peace, Isabella was to be betrothed to Pedro Girón Acuña Pacheco, Master of the Order of Calatrava and brother to the King's favourite, Juan Pacheco. In return, Don Pedro would pay into the impoverished royal treasury an enormous sum of money. Seeing no alternative, Henry agreed to the marriage. Isabella was aghast and prayed to God that the marriage would not come to pass. Her prayers were answered when Don Pedro suddenly fell ill and died while on his way to meet his fiancée.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 62–63 When Henry recognised Isabella as his heir-presumptive on 19 September 1468, he also promised that his sister should not be compelled to marry against her will, while she in return agreed to obtain his consent. It seemed that finally the years of failed attempts at political marriages were over. There was talk of a marriage to Edward IV of England or to one of his brothers, probably Richard, Duke of Gloucester,Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 9 but this alliance was never seriously considered. Once again in 1468, a marriage proposal arrived from Alfonso V of Portugal. Going against his promises made in September, Henry tried to make the marriage a reality. If Isabella married Alfonso, Henry's daughter Joanna would marry Alfonso's son John II and thus, after the death of the old king, John and Joanna could inherit Portugal and Castile.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 70–71 Isabella refused and made a secret promise to marry her cousin and very first betrothed, Ferdinand of Aragon. After this failed attempt, Henry once again went against his promises and tried to marry Isabella to Louis XI's brother Charles, Duke of Berry.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 72 In Henry's eyes, this alliance would cement the friendship of Castile and France as well as remove Isabella from Castilian affairs. Isabella once again refused the proposal. Meanwhile, John II of Aragon negotiated in secret with Isabella a wedding to his son Ferdinand.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, pp. 10,13–14 On 18 October 1469, the formal betrothal took place.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 78 Because Isabella and Ferdinand were second cousins, they stood within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity and the marriage would not be legal unless a dispensation from the Pope was obtained.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, pp. 11,13 With the help of the Valencian Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (later Alexander VI), Isabella and Ferdinand were presented with a supposed papal bull by Pius II (who had died in 1464), authorising Ferdinand to marry within the third degree of consanguinity, making their marriage legal. Afraid of opposition, Isabella eloped from the court of Henry with the excuse of visiting her brother Alfonso's tomb in Ávila. Ferdinand, on the other hand, crossed Castile in secret disguised as a servant. They were married immediately upon reuniting, on 19 October 1469, in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid.Gerli, p. 219

War with Portugal

On 12 December 1474, news of Isabella's brother King Henry IV's death in Madrid reached Segovia prompting Isabella to take refuge within the walls of the Alcázar of Segovia where she received the support of Andres Cabrera and Segovia's council. The next day, Isabella was crowned as Queen of Castile and León. Isabella's reign got off to a rocky start. Because her brother had named Isabella as his successor, when she ascended to the throne in 1474, there were already several plots against her. Diego Pacheco, the Marquis of Villena, and his followers maintained that Joanna la Beltraneja, daughter of King Henry IV, was the rightful queen.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 93 Shortly after the Marquis made his claim, a longtime supporter of Isabella, the Archbishop of Toledo, left court to plot with his great-nephew the Marquis. The Archbishop and Marquis made plans to have the Infanta Joanna marry her uncle, King Alfonso V of Portugal and invade Castile to claim the throne for themselves.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 96 In May 1475, King Alfonso and his army crossed into Spain and advanced to Plasencia. Here he married the young Joanna.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 98 A long and bloody war for the Castilian succession then took place. The war went back and forth for almost a year until 1 March 1476, when the Battle of Toro took place, a battle in which both sides claimed victory Spanish historian Ana Carrasco Manchado: "...The battle Toro was fierce and uncertain, and because of that both sides attributed themselves the victory. Prince John, the son of Alfonso of Portugal, sent letters to the Portuguese cities declaring victory. And Ferdinand of Aragon did the same. Both wanted to take advantage of the victory's propaganda." In Isabel I de Castilla y la sombra de la ilegitimidad: propaganda y representación en el conflicto sucesorio (1474–1482), 2006, p. 195, 196. Spanish historian Cesáreo Fernández Duro: "...For those who ignore the background of these circumstances it will certainly seem strange that while the Catholic Monarchs raised a temple in Toledo in honour of the victory that God granted them on that occasion, the same fact Battle of Toro was festively celebrated with solemn processions on its anniversary in Portugal" in La batalla de Toro (1476). Datos y documentos para su monografía histórica, in Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia, tome 38, Madrid, 1901,p. 250. and celebrated Manchado, Isabel I de Castilla y la sombra de la ilegitimidad: propaganda y representación en el conflicto sucesorio (1474–1482), 2006, p. 199 (foot note nr.141). the victory: the troops of King Alfonso V were beaten Pulgar, Crónica de los Señores Reyes Católicos Don Fernando y Doña Isabel de Castilla y de Aragón, chapter XLV. Garcia de Resende- , chapter XIII. by the Castilian centre-left commanded by the Duke of Alba and Cardinal Mendoza while the forces led by Prince John of Portugal defeated chronicler Hernando del Pulgar (Castilian): "...promptly, those 6 Castilian captains, which we already told were at the right side of the royal battle, and were invested by the prince of Portugal and the bishop of Évora, turned their backs and put themselves on the run." in Crónica de los Señores Reyes Católicos Don Fernando y Doña Isabel de Castilla y de Aragón, chapter XLV. chronicler Garcia de Resende (Portuguese): "... And being the battles of both sides ordered that way and prepared to attack by nearly sunshine, the King ordered the prince to attack the enemy with his and God's blessing, which he obeyed (...). (...) and after the sound of the trumpets and screaming all for S. George invested so bravely the enemy battles, and in spite of their enormous size, they could not stand the hard fight and were rapidly beaten and put on the run with great losses." In , chapter XIII. chronicler Juan de Mariana (Castilian): "(...) the Castilian horsemen (...) moved forward(...).They were received by prince D. John... which charge... they couldn't stand but instead were defeated and ran away " in Historia General de España, tome V, book XXIV, chapter X, p. 299,300. chronicler Damião de Góis (Portuguese): "(...)these Castilians who were on the right of the Castilian Royal battle, received charge of the Prince's men as brave knights invoking Santiago but they couldn't resist them and began to flee, and so our men killed and arrested many of them, and among those who escaped some took refuge (...) in their Royal battle that was on left of these six Castilian divisions. " in Chronica do Principe D. Joam, chapter LXXVIII. the Castilian right wing and remained in possession chronicler Juan de Mariana (Castilian): "...the enemy led by prince D. John of Portugal, who without suffering defeat, stood on a hill with his forces in good order until very late (...). Thus, both forces and Portuguese remained face to face for some hours; and the Portuguese kept their position during more time (...)" in Historia General de España, tome V, book XXIV, chapter X, p. 299,300. chronicler Rui de Pina (Portuguese): "And being the two enemy battles face to face, the Castilian battle was deeply agitated and showing clear signs of defeat if attacked as it was without King and dubious of the outcome.(...) And without discipline and with great disorder they went to Zamora. So being the Prince alone on the field without suffering defeat but inflicting it on the adversary he became heir and master of his own victory" in Chronica de El- rei D.Affonso V... 3rd book, chapter CXCI. of the battlefield. But despite its uncertain French historian Jean Dumont in La "imcomparable" Isabel la Catolica/ The incomparable Isabel the Catholic, Encuentro Ediciones, printed by Rogar-Fuenlabrada, Madrid, 1993 (Spanish edition), p. 49: "...But in the left Portuguese Wing, in front of the Asturians and Galician, the reinforcement army of the Prince heir of Portugal, well provided with artillery, could leave the battlefield with its head high. The battle resulted this way, inconclusive. But its global result stays after that decided by the withdraw of the Portugal's King, the surrender... of the Zamora's fortress on March 19, and the multiple adhesions of the nobles to the young princes." French historian Joseph-Louis Desormeaux: "... The result of the battle was very uncertain; Ferdinand defeated the enemy's right wing led by Alfonso, but the Prince had the same advantage over the Castilians." In Abrégé chronologique de l'histoire de l'Éspagne, Duchesne, Paris, 1758, 3rd Tome, p. 25. outcome, the Battle of Toro represented a great political victory Spanish academic António M. Serrano: " From all of this it is deductible that the battle Toro was inconclusive, but Isabella and Ferdinand made it fly with wings of victory. (...) Actually, since this battle transformed in victory; since 1 March 1476, Isabella and Ferdinand started to rule in the Spain's throne. (...) The inconclusive wings of the battle became the secure and powerful wings of San Juan's eagle commemorative temple of the Battle of Toro ." in San Juan de los Reyes y la batalla de Toro, revista Toletum , segunda época, 1979 (9), pp. 55–70. Real Academia de Bellas Artes y Ciencias Históricas de Toledo, Toledo. ISSN: 0210-6310 A. Ballesteros Beretta: "His moment is the inconclusive Battle of Toro.(...) both sides attributed themselves the victory.... The letters written by the King Ferdinand to the main cities... are a model of skill. (...) what a powerful description of the battle! The nebulous transforms into light, the doubtful acquires the profile of a certain triumph. The politic Ferdinand achieved the fruits of a discussed victory." In Fernando el Católico, el mejor rey de España, Ejército revue, nr 16, p. 56, May 1941. Vicente Álvarez Palenzuela- La guerra civil Castellana y el enfrentamiento con Portugal (1475–1479): "That is the battle of Toro. The Portuguese army had not been exactly defeated, however, the sensation was that D. Juana's cause had completely sunk. It made sense that for the Castilians Toro was considered as the divine retribution, the compensation desired by God to compensate the terrible disaster of Aljubarrota, still alive in the Castilian memory". Spanish academic Rafael Dominguez Casas: "...San Juan de los Reyes resulted from the royal will to build a monastery to commemorate the victory in a battle with an uncertain outcome but decisive, the one fought in Toro in 1476, which consolidated the union of the two most important Peninsular Kingdoms." In San Juan de los reyes: espacio funerário y aposento régio in Boletín del Seminário de Estúdios de Arte y Arqueologia, number 56, p. 364, 1990. for the Catholic Monarchs, assuring them the throne since the supporters of Joanna la Beltraneja disbanded and the Portuguese army, without allies, left Castile. As summarised by the historian Justo L. González: Both armies faced each other at the camps of Toro resulting in an indecisive battle. But while the Portuguese King reorganised his troops, Ferdinand sent news to all the cities of Castile and to several foreign kingdoms informing them about a huge victory where the Portuguese were crushed. Faced with these news, the party of "la Beltraneja" Joanna was dissolved and the Portuguese were forced to return to their kingdom. Justo L. González- Historia del Cristianismo , Editorial Unilit, Miami, 1994, Tome 2, Parte II (La era de los conquistadores), p. 68. With great political vision, Isabella took advantage of the moment and convoked courts at Madrigal-Segovia (April–October 1476) Historian Marvin Lunenfeld: "In 1476, immediately after the indecisive battle of Peleagonzalo Toro, Ferdinand and Isabella hailed the result as a great victory and called a cortes at Madrigal. The newly created prestige was used to gain municipal support from their allies(...)" in The council of the Santa Hermandad: a study of the pacification forces of Ferdinand and Isabella, University of Miami Press, 1970, p. 27. where her eldest child and daughter Isabella was firstly sworn as heiress to Castile's crown. That was equivalent to legitimising Isabella's own throne. In August of the same year, Isabella proved her abilities as a powerful ruler on her own. A rebellion broke out in Segovia, and Isabella rode out to suppress it, as her husband Ferdinand was off fighting at the time. Going against the advice of her male advisors, Isabella rode by herself into the city to negotiate with the rebels. She was successful and the rebellion was quickly brought to an end.Prescott, William. History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, The Catholic. J.B. Lippincott & CO., 1860, p. 184–185 Two years later, Isabella further secured her place as ruler with the birth of her son John, Prince of Asturias, on 30 June 1478. To many, the presence of a male heir legitimised her place as ruler. Meanwhile, the Castilian and Portuguese fleets fought for hegemony in the Atlantic Ocean and for the wealth of Guinea (gold and slaves), where the decisive naval Battle of Guinea was fought. Battle of Guinea: Alonso de Palencia, Década IV, Book XXXIII, Chapter V ("Disaster among those sent to the mines of gold Guinea. Charges against the King..."), pp. 91–94. This was a decisive battle because after it, in spite of the Catholic Monarchs' attempts, they were unable to send new fleets to Guinea, Canary or to any part of the Portuguese empire until the end of the war. The Perfect Prince sent an order to drown any Castilian crew captured in Guinea waters. Even the Castilian navies which left Guinea before the signature of the peace treaty had to pay the tax ("quinto") to the Portuguese crown when they returned to Castile after the peace treaty. Isabella had to ask permission of Afonso V so that this tax could be paid in Castilian harbours. Naturally all this caused a grudge against the Catholic Monarchs in Andalusia. Historian Malyn Newitt: "However, in 1478 the Portuguese surprised thirty-five Castilian ships returning from Mina Guinea and seized them and all their gold. Another...Castilian voyage to Mina, that of Eustache de la Fosse, was intercepted ... in 1480. (...) All things considered, it is not surprising that the Portuguese emerged victorious from this first maritime colonial war. They were far better organised than the Castilians, were able to raise money for the preparation and supply of their fleets, and had clear central direction from ... Prince John." In A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400–1668, Routledge, New York, 2005, pp. 39–40. The war dragged on for another three yearsPlunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 109–110 and ended with a Castilian victory on land Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius "In a war in which the Castilians were victorious on land and the Portuguese at sea, ..." in Foundations of the Portuguese empire 1415–1580, volume I, University of Minnesota Press, 1985, p. 152. and a Portuguese victory on the sea. The four separate peace treaties signed at Alcáçovas (4 September 1479) reflected that result: Portugal gave up the throne of Castile in favour of Isabella in exchange for a very favourable share of the Atlantic territories disputed with Castile (they all went to Portugal with the exception of the Canary Islands:: Alonso de Palencia, Decada IV, Book XXXI, Chapters VIII and IX ("preparation of 2 fleets Guinea and to Canary, respectively so that with them King Ferdinand crush its enemies Portuguese..."). Alonso de Palencia, Decada IV, book XXXII, chapter III: in 1478 a Portuguese fleet intercepted the armada of 25 navies sent by Ferdinand to conquer Gran Canary – capturing 5 of its navies plus 200 Castilians – and forced it to fled hastily and definitively from Canary waters. This victory allowed Prince John to use the Canary Islands as an "exchange coin" in the peace treaty of Alcáçovas. Guinea with its mines of gold, Cape Verde, Madeira, Azores, and the right of conquest over the Kingdom of Fez Pina, Chronica de El-Rei D. Affonso V, 3rd book, chapter CXCIV (Editorial error: Chapter CXCIV erroneously appears as Chapter CLXIV.Reports the end of the siege of Ceuta by the arrival of the fleet with Afonso V). Quesada, Portugueses en la frontera de Granada, 2000, p. 98. In 1476 Ceuta was simultaneously besieged by the moors and a Castilian army led by the Duke of Medina Sidónia. The Castilians conquered the city from the Portuguese who took refuge in the inner fortress, but a Portuguese fleet arrived "in extremis" and regained the city. A Ceuta dominated by the Castilians would certainly have forced the right to conquer Fez (Morocco) to be shared between Portugal and Castile instead of the monopoly the Portuguese acquired.) plus a large war compensation: 106.676 dobles of gold. Mendonça, 2007, p. 101–103. The Catholic Monarchs also had to accept that Joanna la Beltraneja remain in Portugal instead of Spain and to pardon all rebellious subjects who had supported Joanna and King Alfonso.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520''. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 38 And the Catholic Monarchs—who had proclaimed themselves rulers of Portugal and donated lands to noblemen inside this country Mendonça, 2007, p. 53.—had to give up the Portuguese crown. At Alcáçovas, Isabella and Ferdinand had conquered the throne, but the Portuguese exclusive right of navigation and commerce in all of the Atlantic Ocean south of the Canary Islands meant that Spain was practically blocked out of the Atlantic and was deprived of the gold of Guinea, which induced anger in Andalusia. Spanish academic Antonio Rumeu de Armas claims that with the peace treaty of Alcáçovas in 1479, the Catholic Monarchs "...buy the peace at an excessively expensive price..." António Rumeu de Armas- book description, MAPFRE, Madrid, 1992, page 88. and historian Mª Monserrat León Guerrero added that they "...find themselves forced to abandon their expansion by the Atlantic...". Mª Monserrat León Guerrero in El segundo viaje colombino, University of Valladolid, 2000, chapter 2, pp. 49–50. Christopher Columbus freed Castile from this difficult situation, because his New World discovery led to a new and much more balanced sharing of the Atlantic at Tordesillas in 1494. As the orders received by Columbus in his first voyage (1492) show: " Catholic Monarchs have always in mind that the limits signed in the share of Alcáçovas should not be overcome, and thus they insist with Columbus to sail along the parallel of Canary." Thus, by sponsoring the Columbian adventure to the west, the Spanish monarchs were trying the only remaining path of expansion. As is now known, they would be extremely successful on this issue. Isabella had proven herself to be a fighter and tough monarch from the start. Now that she had succeeded in securing her place on the Castilian throne, she could begin to institute the reforms that the kingdom desperately needed.

Reform

Regulation of crime

When Isabella came to the throne in 1474, Castile was in a state of despair thanks to her brother Henry's reign. It was not unknown that Henry IV was a big spender and did little to enforce the laws of his kingdom. It was even said by one Castilian denizen of the time that murder, rape, and robbery happened without punishment.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 121 Because of this, Isabella needed desperately to find a way to reform her kingdom. Due to the measures imposed, historians during her lifetime saw her to be more inclined to justice than to mercy, and indeed far more rigorous and unforgiving than her husband Ferdinand.Boruchoff, David A. "Historiography with License: Isabel, the Catholic Monarch, and the Kingdom of God." Isabel la Católica, Queen of Castile: Critical Essays. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 242–247.

=La Santa Hermandad

= Isabella's first major reform came during the cortes of Madrigal in 1476 in the form of a police force, La Santa Hermandad (the Holy Brotherhood). While 1476 was not the first time that Castile had seen the Hermandad, it was the first time that the police force was used by the crown.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 125 During the late medieval period, the expression hermandad had been used to describe groups of men who came together of their own accord to regulate law and order by patrolling the roads and countryside and punishing malefactors.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 42 These brotherhoods had usually been suppressed by the monarch, however. Before 1476, the justice system in most parts of the country was effectively under the control of dissident members of the nobility rather than royal officials.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, pp. 48–49 To fix this problem, during the Cortes of 1476, a general Hermandad was established for Castile, Leon, and Asturias. The police force was to be made up of locals who were to regulate the crime occurring in the kingdom. It was to be paid for by a tax of 1800 maravedís on every one hundred households.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 125-126 In 1477, Isabella visited Extremadura and Andalusia to introduce this more efficient police force there as well.Prescott, William. History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, The Catholic. J.B Lippincott & CO., 1860, p. 186

=Other criminal reforms

= Keeping with her reformation of the regulation of laws, in 1481 Isabella charged two officials with restoring peace in Galicia. This turbulent province had been the prey of tyrant nobles since the days of Isabella's father, John II.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 123 Robbers infested the highways and oppressed the smaller towns and villages. These officials set off with the Herculean task of restoring peace for the province. The officials were successful. They succeeded in driving over 1,500 robbers from Galicia.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 133

Finances

From the very beginning of her reign, Isabella fully grasped the importance of restoring the Crown's finances. The reign of Henry IV had left the kingdom of Castile in great debt. Upon examination, it was found that the chief cause of the nation's poverty was the wholesale alienation of royal estates during Henry's reign.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 150 To make money, Henry had sold off royal estates at prices well below their value. The Cortes of Toledo of 1480 came to the conclusion that the only hope of lasting financial reform lay in a resumption of these alienated lands and rents. This decision was warmly approved by many leading nobles of the court, but Isabella was reluctant to take such drastic measures. It was decided that the Cardinal of Spain would hold an enquiry into the tenure of estates and rents acquired during Henry IV's reign. Those that had not been granted as a reward for services were to be restored without compensation, while those that had been sold at a price far below their real value were to be bought back at the same sum. While many of the nobility were forced to pay large sums of money for their estates, the royal treasury became ever richer. Isabella's one stipulation was that there would be no revocation of gifts made to churches, hospitals, or the poor.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 152–155 Another issue of money was the overproduction of coinage and the abundance of mints in the kingdom. During Henry's reign, the number of mints regularly producing money had increased from just five to 150. Much of the coinage produced in these mints was nearly worthless. During the first year of her reign, Isabella established a monopoly over the royal mints and fixed a legal standard to which the coinage must approximate. By shutting down many of the mints and taking royal control over the production of money, Isabella restored the confidence of the public in the Crown's ability to handle the kingdom's finance.

Government

Both Isabella and Ferdinand established very few new governmental and administrative institutions in their respective kingdoms. Especially in Castile, the main achievement was to use more effectively the institutions that had existed during the reigns of John II and Henry IV.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 28 Historically, the center of the Castilian government had been the royal household, together with its surrounding court. The household was traditionally divided into two overlapping bodies. The first body was made up of household officials, mainly people of the nobility, who carried out governmental and political functions for which they received special payment. The second body was made up of some 200 permanent servants or continos who performed a wide range of confidential functions on behalf of the rulers.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 29 By the 1470s, when Isabella began to take a firm grip on the royal administration, the senior offices of the royal household were simply honorary titles and held strictly by the nobility. The positions of a more secretarial nature were often held by senior churchmen. Substantial revenues were attached to such offices and were therefore enjoyed greatly, on an effectively hereditary basis, by the great Castilian houses of nobility. While the nobles held the titles, individuals of lesser breeding did the real work.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 29–32 Traditionally, the main advisory body to the rulers of Castile was the Royal Council. The Council, under the monarch, had full power to resolve all legal and political disputes. The Council was responsible for supervising all senior administrative officials, such as the Crown representatives in all of the major towns. It was also the supreme judicial tribunal of the kingdom.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 30 In 1480, during the Cortes of Toledo, Isabella made many reforms to the Royal Council. Previously there had been two distinct yet overlapping categories of royal councillor. One formed a group which possessed both judicial and administrative responsibilities. This portion consisted of some bishops, some nobles, and an increasingly important element of professional administrators with legal training known as letrados. The second category of traditional councillor had a less formal role. This role depended greatly on the individuals' political influence and personal influence with the monarch. During Isabella's reign, the role of this second category was completely eliminated.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 42–47 As mentioned previously, Isabella had little care for personal bribes or favours. Because of this, this second type of councillor, usually of the nobility, was only allowed to attend the council of Castile as an observer. Isabella began to rely more on the professional administrators than ever before. These men were mostly of the bourgeoisie or lesser nobility. The Council was also rearranged and it was officially settled that one bishop, three caballeros, and eight or nine lawyers would serve on the council at a time. While the nobles were no longer directly involved in the matters of state, they were welcome to attend the meetings. Isabella hoped by forcing the nobility to choose whether to participate or not would weed out those who were not dedicated to the state and its cause.Plunkett, Ierne. Isabella of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 142 Isabella also saw the need to provide a personal relationship between herself as the monarch and her subjects. Therefore, Isabella and Ferdinand set aside a time every Friday during which they themselves would sit and allow people to come to them with complaints. This was a new form of personal justice that Castile had not seen before. The Council of State was reformed and presided over by the King and Queen. This department of public affairs dealt mainly with foreign negotiations, hearing embassies, and transacting business with the Court of Rome. In addition to these departments, there was also a Supreme Court of the Santa Hermandad, a Council of Finance, and a Council for settling purely Aragonese matters.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 143 Although Isabella made many reforms that seem to have made the Cortes stronger, in actuality the Cortes lost political power during the reigns of Isabella and Ferdinand. Isabella and her husband moved in the direction of a non-parliamentary government and the Cortes became an almost passive advisory body, giving automatic assent to legislation which had been drafted by the royal administration.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 49 After the reforms of the Cortes of Toledo, the Queen ordered a noted jurist, Alfonso Diaz de Montalvo, to undertake the task of clearing away legal rubbish and compiling what remained into a comprehensive code. Within four years the work stood completed in eight bulky volumes and the Ordenanzas Reales took their place on legal bookshelves.Plunkett,Ierne. Isabel of Castile. The Knickerbocker Press, 1915, p. 146

Events of 1492

Granada

; it resides in the Capilla Real, in Granada]] At the end of the Reconquista, only Granada was left for Isabella and Ferdinand to conquer. The Emirate of Granada had been held by the Muslim Nasrid dynasty since the mid-13th century.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 48 Protected by natural barriers and fortified towns, it had withstood the long process of the reconquista. On 1 February 1482, the king and queen reached Medina del Campo and this is generally considered the beginning of the war for Granada. While Isabella's and Ferdinand's involvement in the war was apparent from the start, Granada's leadership was divided and never able to present a united front.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 48–49 It still took ten years to conquer Granada, however, culminating in 1492. The Spanish monarchs recruited soldiers from many European countries and improved their artillery with the latest and best cannons.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 104–106 Systematically, they proceeded to take the kingdom piece by piece. In 1485 they laid siege to Ronda, which surrendered after only a fortnight due to extensive bombardment.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 111 The following year, Loja was taken, and again Muhammad XII was captured and released. One year later, with the fall of Málaga, the western part of the Muslim Nasrid kingdom had fallen into Spanish hands. The eastern province succumbed after the fall of Baza in 1489. The siege of Granada began in the spring of 1491 and at the end of the year, Muhammad XII surrendered. On 2 January 1492 Isabella and Ferdinand entered Granada to receive the keys of the city, and the principal mosque was reconsecrated as a church.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 112–130 The Treaty of Granada was signed later that year, and in it Ferdinand and Isabella gave their word to allow the Muslims and Jews of Granada to live in peace. An uprising by the Moors in 1500 caused the Catholic side to consider that the Moors had violated the Treaty: this gave them a justification for revoking its provisions. See Morisco Revolt. During the war, Isabella noted the abilities and energy of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba and made him one of the two commissioners for the negotiations. Under her patronage, De Córdoba went on to an extraordinary military career that revolutionised the organisation and tactics of the emerging Spanish military, changing the nature of warfare and altering the European balance of power.

Columbus and Portuguese relations

Just three months after entering Granada, Queen Isabella agreed to sponsor Christopher Columbus on an expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west (2000 miles, according to Columbus).Liss,Peggy. "Isabel the Queen," Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 316 The crown agreed to pay a sum of money as a concession from monarch to subject.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 120 His expedition departed on 3 August 1492, and arrived in San Salvador Island on 12 October. He named it San Salvador after Jesus the Savior. He returned the next year and presented his findings to the monarchs, bringing natives and gold under a hero's welcome. Although Columbus was sponsored by the Castilian queen, treasury accounts show no royal payments to him until 1493, after his first voyage was complete.Edwards, John. Ferdinand and Isabella. Pearson Education Limited, 2005, p. 119 Spain entered a Golden Age of exploration and colonisation, the period of the Spanish Empire. The Portuguese did not recognise that South America belonged to the Spanish because it was in Portugal's sphere of influence, and the Portuguese King John II threatened to send an army to claim the land for the Portuguese. In 1494, by the Treaty of Tordesillas, Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to divide the Earth, outside of Europe, with king John II of Portugal. Isabella was not in favour of Columbus' enslavement of the American natives and attempted to enforce the recent policies of the Canaries upon the 'New World', stating that all peoples were under the subject of the Castilian Crown and could not be enslaved in most situations. The principles she established would have very little effect during her lifetime, however. F. Weissberger, Barbara Queen Isabel I of Castile: Power, Patronage, Persona, Tamesis Books, 2008, p. 27, accessed 9 July 2012

Expulsion of the Jews

With the institution of the Roman Catholic Inquisition in Spain, and with the Dominican friar Tomás de Torquemada as the first Inquisitor General, the Catholic Monarchs pursued a policy of religious and national unity. Though Isabella opposed taking harsh measures against Jews on economic grounds, Torquemada was able to convince Ferdinand. On 31 March 1492, the Alhambra decree for the expulsion of the Jews was issued.Liss,Peggy. "Isabel the Queen," Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 298 The Jews had until the end of July, three months, to leave the country and they were not to take with them gold, silver, money, arms, or horses. Traditionally, it had been claimed that as many as 200,000 Jews left Spain, but recent historians have shown that such figures are exaggerated: Henry Kamen has shown that out of a total population of 80,000 Jews, a maximum of 40,000 left and the rest converted.Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. (Yale University Press, 1997. p. 29–31). Hundreds of those that remained came under the Inquisition's investigations into relapsed conversos ( Marranos) and the Judaizers who had been abetting them.Liss,Peggy. "Isabel the Queen," Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 308

Later years

Isabella received the title of Catholic Monarch by Pope Alexander VI, a pope of whose behaviour and involvement in matters Isabella did not approve. Along with the physical unification of Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand embarked on a process of spiritual unification, trying to bring the country under one faith ( Roman Catholicism). As part of this process, the Inquisition became institutionalised. After a Muslim uprising in 1499, and further troubles thereafter, the Treaty of Granada was broken in 1502, and Muslims were ordered to either become Christians or to leave. Isabella's confessor, Cisneros, was named Archbishop of Toledo.Hunt, Jocelyn. Spain 1474–1598. Routledge, 2001, p. 20 He was instrumental in a program of rehabilitation of the religious institutions of Spain, laying the groundwork for the later Counter-Reformation. As Chancellor, he exerted more and more power. Isabella and her husband had created an empire and in later years were consumed with administration and politics; they were concerned with the succession and worked to link the Spanish crown to the other rulers in Europe. By early 1497, all the pieces seemed to be in place: The son and heir John, Prince of Asturias, married a Habsburg princess, Margaret of Austria, establishing the connection to the Habsburgs. The eldest daughter, Isabella of Aragon, married King Manuel I of Portugal, and the younger daughter, Joanna of Castile, was married to a Habsburg prince, Philip I of Habsburg. However, Isabella's plans for her eldest two children did not work out. Her only son, John of Asturias, died shortly after his marriage. Her daughter Isabella of Aragon, whose son Miguel da Paz died at the age of two, died in childbirth. Queen Isabella I's crowns passed to her third child Joanna and her son-in-law, Philip I.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 241–260 Isabella did, however, make successful dynastic matches for her three youngest daughters. The death of Isabella of Aragon created a necessity for Manuel I of Portugal to remarry, and Isabella's third daughter, Maria of Aragon, became his next bride. Isabella's youngest daughter, Catherine of Aragon, married England's Arthur, Prince of Wales, but his early death resulted in her being married to his younger brother, King Henry VIII of England. Isabella officially withdrew from governmental affairs on September 14, 1504 and she died that same year on 26 November at the Medina del Campo Royal Palace. It is said that she had truly already been in decline since the death of her son Prince John of Asturias in 1497.Edwards,John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474–1520. Blackwell Publishers Inc, 2000, p. 282 She is entombed in Granada in the Capilla Real, which was built by her grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (Carlos I of Spain), alongside her husband Ferdinand, her daughter Joanna and Joanna's husband Philip I; and Isabella's 2-year-old grandson, Miguel da Paz (the son of Isabella's daughter, also named Isabella, and King Manuel I of Portugal). The museum next to the Capilla Real holds her crown and scepter.

Appearance and personality

Isabella was short but of strong stocky build, of a very fair complexion, and had a hair color that was between strawberry-blonde and auburn. Some portraits, however, show her as a brunette. Her daughters, Joanna and Catherine, were thought to resemble her the most. Isabella maintained an austere, temperate lifestyle, and her religious spirit influenced her the most in life. In spite of her hostility towards the Muslims in Andalusia, Isabella developed a taste for Moorish decor and style. Of her, contemporaries said:
  • Fernández de Oviedo: "To see her speak was divine."
  • : "She was an endeavored woman, very powerful, very prudent, wise, very honest, chaste, devout, discreet, truthful, clear, without deceit. Who could count the excellences of this very Catholic and happy Queen, always very worthy of praises."
  • Hernando del Pulgar: "She was very inclined to justice, so much so that she was reputed to follow more the path of rigor than that of mercy, and did so to remedy the great corruption of crimes that she found in the kingdom when she succeeded to the throne."Pulgar, Crónica de los Reyes Católicos, trans. in David A. Boruchoff, "Historiography with License: Isabel, the Catholic Monarch, and the Kingdom of God," Isabel la Católica, Queen of Castile: Critical Essays (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 242.
  • : " royal knight Alvaro Yáñez de Lugo was condemned to be beheaded, although he offered forty thousand ducados for the war against the Moors to the court so that these monies spare his life. This matter was discussed with the queen, and there were some who told her to pardon him, since these funds for the war were better than the death of that man, and her highness should take them. But the queen, preferring justice to cash, very prudently refused them; and although she could have confiscated all his goods, which were many, she did not take any of them to avoid any note of greed, or that it be thought that she had not wished to pardon him in order to have his goods; instead, she gave them all to the children of the aforesaid knight."Marineo Sículo, De las cosas memorables de España (1539), trans. in David A. Boruchoff, "Instructions for Sainthood and Other Feminine Wiles in the Historiography of Isabel I," Isabel la Católica, Queen of Castile: Critical Essays (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 12.
  • Ferdinand, in his testament, declared that "she was exemplary in all acts of virtue and of fear of God."
  • Fray Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, her confessor, praised "her purity of heart, her big heart and the grandness of her soul".

Family

with their daughter, Joanna, 1482.]] Isabella and Ferdinand had five surviving children. Towards the end of her life, family tragedies overwhelmed her, although she met these reverses with grace and fortitude. The death of her beloved son and heir and the miscarriage of his wife, the death of her daughter Isabella and Isabella's son Miguel (who could have united the kingdoms of the Catholic Monarchs with that of Portugal), the madness of her daughter Joanna and the indifference of Philip the Handsome, and the uncertainty Catherine was in after the death of her husband submerged her in profound sadness that made her dress in black for the rest of her lifetime . Her strong spirituality is well understood from the words she said after hearing of her son's death: "The Lord gave him to me, the Lord hath taken him from me, glory be His holy name."

Sanctity

It is important to note that Isabella's reputation for sanctity derives in large measure from an image carefully shaped and disseminated by the queen herself.Boruchoff, David A. "Instructions for Sainthood and Other Feminine Wiles in the Historiography of Isabel I." Isabel la Católica, Queen of Castile: Critical Essays. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 1–23. In 1958, the Catholic canonical process of the Cause of Canonization of Isabella was started by José García Goldaraz, the Bishop of Valladolid, where she died in 1504. 17 experts were appointed to investigate more than 100,000 documents in the archives of Spain and the Vatican and the merits of opening a canonical process of canonisation. 3,500 of these were chosen to be included in 27 volumes. In 1970, the Commission determined that "A Canonical process for the canonization of Isabella the Catholic could be undertaken with a sense of security since there was not found one single act, public or private, of Queen Isabella that was not inspired by Christian and evangelical criteria; moreover there was a 'reputation of sanctity' uninterrupted for five centuries and as the investigation was progressing, it was more accentuated." In 1972, the Process of Valladolid was officially submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in the Vatican. This process was approved and Isabel was given the title " Servant of God" in March 1974.http://www.queenisabel.com/Canonisation/CanonicalProcess.html Accessed 8 October 2012

Arms

As Princess of Asturias, Isabella bore the undifferenced royal arms of the Crown of Castile and added the Saint John the Evangelist's Eagle, an eagle displayed as single supporter.Princess of Isabella's coat of arms with crest: As queen, she quartered the Royal Arms of the Crown of Castile with the Royal Arms of the Crown of Aragon, she and Ferdinand II of Aragon adopted a yoke and a bundle of arrows as heraldic badges. As co-monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand used the motto " Tanto Monta" ("They amount to the same", or "Equal opposites in balance"), it refers their prenuptial agreement. The conquest of Granada in 1492 was symbolised by the addition enté en point of a quarter with a pomegranate for Granada (in Spanish Granada means pomegranate).Menéndez-Pidal De Navascués, Faustino; El escudo; Menéndez Pidal y Navascués, Faustino; O'Donnell, Hugo; Lolo, Begoña. Símbolos de España. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, 1999. There was an uncommon variant with the Saint John the Evangelist's eagle and two lions adopted as Castilian royal supporters by John II, Isabella's father. Image of the Isabella's coat of arms with lions as supporters, facade of the St. Paul Church inValladolid (Spain) Artehistoria. Retrieved 3 January 2012.

Gallery

Image:La Rendición de Granada - Pradilla.jpg|The Capitulation of Granada by F. Padilla: Muhammad XII before Ferdinand and Isabella. Image:Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze - Columbus Before the Queen.JPG|Isabella meeting Christopher Columbus Image:Monumento a Colón (Madrid) 02b.jpg|Columbus before Queen Isabella. Detail of the Columbus monument in Madrid (1885). Image:Isabel la Católica cede sus joyas.jpg|Engraving of Isabella donating her jewels for Columbus' voyage Image:Doña Isabel la Católica dictando su testamento (Rosales).jpg|Queen Isabella's Will, by Eduardo Rosales. On the left: Juana and Ferdinand; on the right: Cardinal Cisneros (black cap). Image:Isabel la Católica 01b.jpg|Statue of Isabella at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid Image:Isabelle catile crown.jpg|Isabella's crown and scepter, and Ferdinand's sword, are preserved in the Capilla Real of Granada Image:Isabeldecastilla.jpg|Posthumous portrait of Isabella Image:Royal Monogram of Queen Isabella I of Castile.svg|Royal Monogram Image:Isabel la Católica rezando.jpg|This section of the main front altar of the church of Miraflores Charterhouse in Burgos portrays Isabella at prayer. Isabella commissioned it herself in honour of her parents, who are buried within the church. Image:Capilla real tombs.jpg|Isabella and Ferdinand's tomb in La Capilla Real, in Granada Image:Socha Izabely I Katolickej.JPG|Statue of Isabella I the Catholic in front of the seat of the Organization of American States in Washington D.C.

Notes

Further reading

  • Boruchoff, David A. Isabel la Católica, Queen of Castile: Critical Essays. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
  • , Bailey W. and Winius, George D. (1977) Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580, Volume 1, University of Minnesota Press.
  • Downey, Kirsten "Isabella, The Warrior Queen,". New York, Anchor Books, Penguin, 2014.
  • , Edmondo Michael (1992) Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis.
  • Hunt, Joceyln (2001) Spain, 1474–1598. Routledge, 1st Ed.
  • Kamen, Henry. The Spanish Inquisition: a historical revision (Yale University Press, 2014)
  • Liss, Peggy K. (1992) Isabel the Queen. New York: Oxford University Press;
  • , Marvin (1970) "The council of the Santa Hermandad: a study of the pacification forces of Ferdinand and Isabella", University of Miami Press.
  • Miller, Townsend Miller (1963) The Castles and the Crown: Spain 1451–1555. New York: Coward-McCann
  • Roth, Norman (1995) Conversos, Inquisition, and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press)
  • Stuart, Nancy Rubin. Isabella of Castile: the First Renaissance Queen (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991)
  • Tremlett, Giles. '"Isabella of Castile. Europe's First Great Queen"' (London: Bloomsbury, 2017)
  • Tremlett, Giles. "Catherine of Aragon. Henry's Spanish Queen" (London: Faber and Faber, 2010)
  • Weissberger, Barbara F. Queen Isabel I of Castile: Power, Patronage, Persona (2008)
  • Weissberger, Barbara F. Isabel Rules: Constructing Queenship, Wielding Power (2003)

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