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Lawsone

|Section2={{Chembox Properties | Formula = C10H6O3 | MolarMass = 174.15 g/mol | Appearance = Yellow prisms | Density = | MeltingPtC = 195 to 196 | MeltingPt_notes = (decomposition) | BoilingPt = | Solubility = almost insoluble http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/HY/2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinone.html }} |Section3={{Chembox Hazards | MainHazards = | FlashPt = | AutoignitionPt = | RPhrases = | SPhrases = | LD50 = 100 mg/kg }} |Section8={{Chembox Related | OtherFunction = Juglone | OtherFunction_label = naphthoquinones }} }} Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), also known as hennotannic acid, is a red-orange dye present in the leaves of the henna plant ( Lawsonia inermis) as well as in the flower of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes). Humans have used henna extracts containing lawsone as hair and skin dyes for more than 5000 years. Lawsone reacts chemically with the protein keratin in skin and hair, in a process known as Michael addition, resulting in a strong permanent stain that lasts until the skin or hair is shed. The darker colored ink is due to more lawsone-keratin interactions occurring, which evidently break down as the concentration of lawsone decreases and the tattoo fades. Jordão, A.; Vargas, M.; Pinto, A.; da Silva, F.; Ferreira, V. Lawsone in organic synthesis. RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 67909-67943. Lawsone strongly absorbs UV light, and aqueous extracts can be effective sunless tanning and sunscreens. Chemically, lawsone is similar to juglone, which is found in walnuts. Lawsone isolation from Lawsonia Inermis can be difficult due to its easily biodegradeable nature. Isolation involves four steps:
  1. extraction with an extraction solution, usually NaOH
  2. column filtration using a macroporous adsorption resin
  3. a rinse with ethanol to remove impurities, and finally
  4. freeze the product to isolate the lawsone powder, usually a yellow colored dust.Shuang, S.; Lei, Q.; Ting, Y.; Qifu, Y. Method for preparing lawsone from lawsonia inermis China Patent CN 103848732A, June 11, 2014.
During the rinse, the lawsone will be the bottom as it has such a high density and the chlorophyll molecules will all be on the top of the mixture.Gallo, F.; Multari, G.; Giambenedetti, M.; Federici, E. Chemical fingerprinting of Lawsonia inermis L. using HPLC, HPTLC, and densitometry. Phytochem. Anal. 2008, 19, 550-559. Lawsone is hypothesized to undergo a reaction similar to Strecker synthesis in reactions with amino acids.Jelly, R.; Lewis, S. W.;Lennard, C.; Lim, K. F.; Almog, J. Lawsone: a novel reagent for the detection of latent fingermarks on paper surfaces. Chem.Commun. 2008, 3513-3515 Recent research has been conducted on lawsone's potential applications in the forensic science field. Since lawsone shows many similarities with ninhydrin, the current reagent for latent fingerprint development, studies have been conducted to see if lawsone can be used in this field. As of now the research is inconclusive, but optimistic. Lawsone non-specifically targets primary amino acids, and displays photoluminescence with forensic light sources. It has a characteristic purple/brown coloration as opposed to the purple/blue associated with ninhydrin.Jelly, R.; Lewis, S. W.; Lennard, C.; Lim, K. F.; Almog, J. Lawsone: a novel reagent for the detection of latent fingermarks on paper surfaces. Chem. Commun. 2008, 3513-3515. Lawsone shows promise as a reagent for fingerprint detection because of its photoluminescence maximized at 640nm, which is high enough that it avoids background interference common for ninhydrin.Thomas, P.; Farrugia, K. An investigation into the enhancement of fingermarks in blood on paper with genipin and lawsone. Sci. Justice 2013, 53, 315-320.

Related compounds

The naphthoquinones lawsone methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone are some of the active compounds in Impatiens balsamina leaves.

References

"green air" © 2007 - Ingo Malchow, Webdesign Neustrelitz
This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawsone, the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lawsone&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany