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Lithocholic acid

|Section2={{Chembox Properties | Formula =C24H40O3 | MolarMass =376.57 g/mol | Appearance = | Density = | MeltingPtC = 183 to 188 | MeltingPt_notes = | BoilingPt = | Solubility = }} |Section3={{Chembox Hazards | MainHazards = | FlashPt = | AutoignitionPt = | RPhrases = | SPhrases = }} }} Lithocholic acid, also known as 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid or LCA, is a bile acid that acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption. Bacterial action in the colon produces LCA from chenodeoxycholic acid by reduction of the hydroxyl functional group at carbon-7 in the "B" ring of the steroid framework. It has been implicated in human and experimental animal carcinogenesis. Preliminary in vitro research suggests that LCA selectively kills neuroblastoma cells, while sparing normal neuronal cells and is cytotoxic to numerous other malignant cell types at physiologically relevant concentrations. Dietary fiber can bind to lithocholic acid and aid in its excretion in stool; as such, fiber can protect against colon cancer. LCA (and LCA acetate and LCA propionate) can activate the vitamin D receptor without raising calcium levels as much as vitamin D itself.

Anti-aging effects

At a concentration of 50uL, exogenously added LCA was found to extend the mean and maximum chronological lifespan of yeast. The bile acid accumulates in the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, altering the mitochondria's lipid composition by promoting or inhibiting various enzymes.Beach, A.; Richard, V.R.; Leonov, A.; Burstein, M.T.; Bourque, S.D.; Koupaki, O.; Juneau, M.; Feldman, R.; Iouk, T.; Titorenko, V.I. Mitochondrial membrane lipidome defines yeast longevity. Aging 2013, 5, 551–574.   The remodelling of the membranes changed the shape and number of mitochondria in the cell by (1) increasing their size, (2) decreasing their numbers, (3) decreasing the number crista extending from the IMM and (4) increasing the number disconnected crista in the mitochondrial matrix. In biology, structure is always correlated with functions. Therefore, various age-related mitochondrial processes are elevated: the membrane potential, the electron transport chain, ATP production, and reactive oxygen species levels. This improves stress resistance in chronologically aged yeast cells, thereby promoting their survival. Furthermore, the changes to mitochondria size and number reduce mitochondrial fragmentation, thus reducing mitochondria-controlled apoptosis

References

Further reading

"green air" © 2007 - Ingo Malchow, Webdesign Neustrelitz
This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithocholic_acid, the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithocholic_acid&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany