MitoQ is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant designed to protect against oxidative damage within mitochondria, an essential organelle within most cells that use oxygen to break down carbohydrates and fat to release energy in a form the cell can use. MitoQ was designed to decrease mitochondrial oxidative damage and has undergone clinical trials in humans with positive and negative results.E.J. Gane, F. Weilert, D.W. Orr, G.F. Keogh, M. Gibson, M.M. Lockhart, C.M. Frampton, K.M. Taylor, R.A. Smith, M.P. Murphy, The mitochondria-targeted anti-oxidant mitoquinone decreases liver damage in a phase II study of hepatitis C patients, Liver Int, 30 (2010) 1019–1026.B.J. Snow, F.L. Rolfe, M.M. Lockhart, C.M. Frampton, J.D. O'Sullivan, V. Fung, R.A. Smith, M.P. Murphy, K.M. Taylor, A double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ as a disease-modifying therapy in Parkinson's disease, Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 25 (2010) 1670–1674.R.A. Smith, M.P. Murphy, Animal and human studies with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1201 (2010) 96-103.