Palm kernel oil
is an edible plant oil
derived from the kernel
of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis
. It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil
, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil
, extracted from the kernel of the coconut.
Palm kernel oil, palm oil, and coconut oil are three of the few highly saturated
vegetable fats; these oils give the name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid
that they contain.
Palm kernel oil, which is semi-solid at room temperature
, is more saturated than palm oil and comparable to coconut oil.
Oil from the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis
has long been recognized in West Africa
n countries. European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased palm oil for use in Europe
, but palm kernel oil remained rare outside West Africa.
has published historical production figures for palm kernel oil for years beginning October 1 and ending September 30:
In the 1960s, research and development (R&D) in oil palm breeding began to expand after Malaysia's Department of Agriculture established an exchange program with West African economies and four private plantations formed the Oil Palm Genetics Laboratory.Hartley, C. W. S. (1988). The Oil Palm, 3rd edn. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, U.K. The Malaysian government also established Kolej Serdang, which became the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) in the 1970s to train agricultural and agroindustrial engineers and agribusiness graduates to conduct research in the field.
In 1979 with support from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and UPM, the government set up the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (Porim), Development of Palm Oil and Related Products in Malaysia and Indonesia
Rajah Rasiah & Azmi Shahrin, Universiti Malaya, 2006 a public-and-private-coordinated institution. B.C. Sekhar
was appointed founder and chairman. Porim's scientists work in oil palm tree breeding, palm oil nutrition and potential oleochemical
use. Porim was renamed Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Palm kernel oil, similarly to coconut oil
, is high in saturated fats
and is more saturated than palm oil
. Palm kernel oil is high in lauric acid
which has been shown to raise blood cholesterol levels, both as LDL-C (cholesterol contained in low-density lipoprotein
) and HDL-C (cholesterol contained in high-density lipoprotein
). Palm kernel oil does not contain cholesterol or trans fatty acids
Palm kernel oil is commonly used in commercial cooking because it is lower in cost than other oils and remains stable at high cooking temperatures. The oil can also be stored longer than other vegetable oils.
The approximate concentration of fatty acids (FAs) in palm kernel oil is as follows:Ang, Catharina Y. W., KeShun Liu, and Yao-Wen Huang, eds. (1999). Asian Foods
Splitting of oils and fats by hydrolysis
, or under basic conditions saponification
, yields fatty acids, with glycerin (glycerol) as a byproduct. The split-off fatty acids are a mixture ranging from C4 to C18, depending on the type of oil or fat.http://www.webexhibits.org/butter/compounds-fatty.html
Resembling coconut oil, palm kernel oil is packed with myristic
fatty acids and therefore suitable for the manufacture of soap
s, washing powders and personal care products. Lauric acid is important in soap making: a good soap must contain at least 15 per cent laurate for quick lathering
, while soap made for use in sea water is based on virtually 100 per cent laurate.
Derivatives of palmitic acid were used in combination with naphtha
during World War II
to produce napalm
phthenate and aluminum palm