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Reactive intermediate

In chemistry a reactive intermediate is a short-lived, high-energy, highly reactive molecule. When generated in a chemical reaction, it will quickly convert into a more stable molecule. Only in exceptional cases can these compounds be isolated and stored, e.g. low temperatures, matrix isolation. When their existence is indicated, reactive intermediates can help explain how a chemical reaction takes place.Carey, Francis A.; Sundberg, Richard J.; (1984). Advanced Organic Chemistry Part A Structure and Mechanisms (2nd ed.). New York N.Y.: Plenum Press. .March Jerry; (1885). Advanced Organic Chemistry reactions, mechanisms and structure (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, inc. Gilchrist T.C.;Rees C.W.; (1969) carbenes, nitrenes and arynes. Nelson. London.Reactive intermediate chemistry , Robert A. Moss,Matthew Platz,Maitland Jones Most chemical reactions take more than one elementary step to complete, and a reactive intermediate is a high-energy, yet stable, product that exists only in one of the intermediate steps. The series of steps together make a reaction mechanism. A reactive intermediate differs from a reactant or product or a simple reaction intermediate only in that it cannot usually be isolated but is sometimes observable only through fast spectroscopic methods. It is stable in the sense that an elementary reaction forms the reactive intermediate and the elementary reaction in the next step is needed to destroy it. When a reactive intermediate is not observable, its existence must be inferred through experimentation. This usually involves changing reaction conditions such as temperature or concentration and applying the techniques of chemical kinetics, chemical thermodynamics, or spectroscopy. Reactive intermediates based on carbon are radicals, carbenes, carbocations, carbanions, arynes, and carbynes. File:Radical metilo--methyl radical.png|Radical File:Carbene.png| Carbene File:Methyl cation.svg|Carbocation File:碳负离子.png|Carbanion File:Carbyne quartet.png|Carbyne File:1,2-Didehydrobenzol.svg|Benzyne (an aryne)

Common features

Reactive intermediates have several features in common:

Other reactive intermediates

See also

References

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This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_intermediate, the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reactive_intermediate&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany