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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. Respiration could also be defined as the release of energy from glucose and this is achieved through the breaking down of this glucose in the cells and oxygen from the atmosphere is absoloutely pivotal to this breaking down. Where oxygen is not present anaerobic respiration takes place. Glucose + Oxygen= Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy and if oxygen is not present Glucose= Carbon dioxide + Alcohol + Energy alcohol is not released by anaerobic respiration in humans, instead in its place Lactic acid is released. The physiological definition of respiration differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy (in the form of ATP) by oxidizing nutrients and releasing waste products. Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the organism, while physiologic respiration concerns the diffusion and transport of metabolites between the organism and the external environment. In animals with lungs, physiological respiration involves respiratory cycles of inhaled and exhaled breaths. Inhalation (breathing in) is usually an active movement. The contraction of the diaphragm muscle cause a pressure variation, which is equal to the pressures caused by elastic, resistive and inertial components of the respiratory system. In contrast, exhalation (breathing out) is usually a passive process. Breathing in, brings air into the lungs where the process of gas exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries The process of breathing does not fill the alveoli with atmospheric air during each inhalation (about 350 ml per breath), but the inhaled air is carefully diluted and thoroughly mixed with a large volume of gas (about 2.5 liters in adult humans) known as the functional residual capacity which remains in the lungs after each exhalation, and whose gaseous composition differs markedly from that of the ambient air. Physiological respiration involves the mechanisms that ensure that the composition of the functional residual capacity is kept constant, and equilibrates with the gases dissolved in the pulmonary capillary blood, and thus throughout the body. Thus, in precise usage, the words breathing and ventilation are hyponyms, not synonyms, of respiration; but this prescription is not consistently followed, even by most health care providers, because the term respiratory rate (RR) is a well-established term in health care, even though it would need to be consistently replaced with ventilation rate if the precise usage were to be followed.

Classifications of respiration

There are several ways to classify the physiology of respiration:

By species

By mechanism

By experiments

By intensive care and emergency medicine

By other medical topics

Additional images

Image:Surface tension and lung volume.jpg Image:Curvon1.jpg Image:Curvon2.jpg Image:IPP lungs.jpg

See also

References

  • Nelsons VCE Units 1-2 Physical Education. 2010 Cengage Copyright.

External links

Further reading

"green air" © 2007 - Ingo Malchow, Webdesign Neustrelitz
This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiration_(physiology), the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Respiration_(physiology)&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany