, October 1952]]
is a mixed genre
within the umbrella of speculative fiction
which simultaneously draws upon and/or combines tropes and elements from both science fiction
. It also sometimes incorporates elements of horror fiction
During the Golden Age of Science Fiction
, the fanciful science fantasy stories were seen in sharp contrast to the terse, scientifically plausible material that came to dominate mainstream science fiction typified by the magazine Astounding Stories
. Although at this time, science fantasy stories were often relegated to the status of children's entertainment, their freedom of imagination and romance proved to be an early major influence on the "New Wave" writers of the 1960s, who became exasperated by the limitations of "hard" SF
Science fantasy versus science fiction
Distinguishing between science fiction and fantasy, Rod Serling
claimed that the former was "the improbable made possible" while the latter was "the impossible made probable". As a combination of the two, science fantasy gives a scientific veneer of realism to things that simply could not happen in the real world under any circumstances. Where science fiction does not permit the existence of fantasy
elements, science fantasy explicitly relies upon them.
The label first came into wide use after many science fantasy stories were published in the American pulp magazine
s, such as Robert A. Heinlein
's Magic, Inc.
, L. Ron Hubbard
's Slaves of Sleep
, and Fletcher Pratt
and L. Sprague de Camp
's Harold Shea
series. All were relatively rationalistic
stories published in John W. Campbell, Jr.
magazine. These were a deliberate attempt to apply the techniques and attitudes of science fiction to traditional fantasy subjects. The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction
published, among other things, all but the last of the Operation
series, by Poul Anderson
and C. L. Moore
published novels in Startling Stories
, alone and together, which were far more romantic
. These were closely related to the work that they and others were doing for outlets like Weird Tales
, such as Moore's Northwest Smith
published a number of books as science fantasy during the 1950s and 1960s.
The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
points out that as a genre, science fantasy "has never been clearly defined", and was most commonly used in the period 1950-1966.
The Star Trek
franchise created by Gene Roddenberry
is considered an example of science fantasy. Writer James F. Broderick describes Star Trek
as science fantasy because it includes semi-futuristic as well as supernatural/fantasy elements such as The Q
. According to the late iconic science fiction author, Arthur C. Clarke
, many purists argue that Star Trek
is science fantasy rather than science fiction because of its scientifically improbable elements, which he partially agreed with.
Subgenres of science fantasy
Dying Earth and post-apocalypse
's Dying Earth
stories are sometimes classed as science fantasy because the cosmology
used is not compatible with that conventionally accepted by science fiction. Other stories in the Dying Earth subgenre such as M. John Harrison
novels or Gene Wolfe
's The Book of the New Sun
are usually classed as science fantasy.
books represent a fantasy world as the far future of Earth after supernatural events cause the downfall of civilization.
The planetary romance, a story set primarily or wholly on a single planet and illustrating its scenery, native peoples (if any) and cultures, offers considerable scope for science fantasy, in the sense of fantasy rationalized by reference to science-fictional conventions.
The works of Edgar Rice Burroughs
and E. R. Eddison
are probably the earliest examples of this genre, especially the John Carter of Mars
series. David Lindsay
's A Voyage to Arcturus
, published in 1920 is one of the earliest examples of the type, although it differs from most of them in not assuming a science-fictional background of interplanetary or interstellar travel; it is rather a philosophical romance, which uses an alien planet as a background for exploring philosophical themes. C. S. Lewis
' Out of the Silent Planet
(1938) is an example of the same type of story, though in its case the preoccupations are theological. In both cases, the magical elements are barely rationalized, and in Lewis' case stand in stark contrast to the pseudo-scientific machinery that frames the story.
Some examples of this type of science fantasy deliberately blur the already vague distinction between science fictional paranormal powers and magic; for instance, Poul Anderson
's The Queen of Air and Darkness
, in which aliens use psionic powers of illusion to imitate earthly myths of fairies—who are themselves traditionally regarded as magical illusionists.
In Andre Norton
's Witch World
series, the fantasy world is excused as a parallel universe
. There are a few science fictional elements in the earlier stories of this series, which are absent from the later novels.
Sword and planet
Many works by Edgar Rice Burroughs
fall into this category, as well as those of his imitators such as Otis Adelbert Kline
, Kenneth Bulmer
, Lin Carter
, and John Norman
. They are largely classed as "science fantasy" because of the presence of swords and, usually, an archaic aristocratic social system; Burroughs' own novels are, however, skeptical in spirit and almost free of any non-rationalized "fantastic" element (other than the never-explained mechanism by which John Carter gets to Mars). The graphic novel Camelot 3000
is another good example of this. The movie Krull
also falls in this category, since that the movie depicts a story where a near-omnipotent alien creature invades a fantasy world and the protagonists must find a way to fight back against the alien.
Steampunk is a subgenre of science fantasy, but can also be a subgenre of science fiction, taking old age technology and making it into a futuristic setting with fantastic elements.
The Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society
is an example of a social grouping of fans on the genre of science fantasy and possibly other speculative fiction