A submitochondrial particle is a compartmentalized membranous product of exposing mitochondria to ultrasound. This causes the cristae to pinch off forcing the inner mitochondrial membrane inside out. As a consequence, the F1 particle becomes exposed and on the outside. Using chaotropic agents such as urea, these particles can be removed, dissociating the related ATPase activity from the membrane. However, the electron transport complexes remain on the membrane. If F1 particles are removed from submitochondrial particles, they can be reconstituted by carefully removing the chaotropic agent.