is the conjugate base
of an alcohol
and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen
atom. They are written as RO−, where R is the organic substituent. Alkoxides are strong bases
and, when R is not bulky, good nucleophile
s and good ligands. Alkoxides, although generally not stable in protic solvent
s such as water, occur widely as intermediates in various reactions, including the Williamson ether synthesis
. ( Link to excerpt.
) Transition metal
alkoxides are widely used for coatings and as catalyst
s are unsaturated alkoxides derived by deprotonation of a C-H bond adjacent to a ketone
. The nucleophilic center for simple alkoxides is located on the oxygen, whereas the nucleophilic site on enolates is delocalized onto both carbon and oxygen sites.
are close relatives of the alkoxides, in which the alkyl group is replaced by a derivative of benzene
is more acidic than a typical alcohol; thus, phenoxides are correspondingly less basic and less nucleophilic than alkoxides. They are, however, often easier to handle, and yield derivatives that are more crystalline than those of the alkoxides.
Alkali metal alkoxides are often oligomeric or polymeric compounds, especially when the R group is small (Me, Et). The alkoxide anion is a good bridging ligand
, thus many alkoxides feature M2O or M3O linkages. In solution, the alkali metal derivatives exhibit strong ion-pairing, as expected for the alkali metal derivative of a strongly basic anion.
|volume = 53|issue = 2|year = 2014|pages = 553–556|doi = 10.1002/anie.201306884}} Color code: dark gray = C, violet = Li, red = O, light gray = H.]]
From reducing metals
Alkoxides can be produced by several routes starting from an alcohol
. Highly reducing metals react directly with alcohols to give the corresponding metal alkoxide. The alcohol serves as an acid
, and hydrogen
is produced as a by-product. A classic case is sodium methoxide
produced by the addition of sodium
metal to methanol
2 CH3OH + 2 Na → 2 CH3ONa + H2
Other alkali metal
s can be used in place of sodium, and most alcohols can be used in place of methanol.
From electrophilic chlorides
reacts with alcohols to give the corresponding tetraalkoxides, concomitant with the evolution of hydrogen chloride
+ 4 (CH3)2CHOH
+ 4 HCl
The reaction can be accelerated by the addition of a base, such as a tertiary amine
. Many other metal and main group halides can be used instead of titanium, for example SiCl4, ZrCl4, and PCl3.
By metathesis reactions
Many alkoxides are prepared by salt-forming reactions from a metal chloride and sodium alkoxide:
NaOR + MCln
Such reactions are favored by the lattice energy
of the NaCl, and purification of the product alkoxide is simplified by the fact that NaCl is insoluble in common organic solvents.
By electrochemical processes
Many alkoxides can be prepared by anodic dissolution of the corresponding metals in water-free alcohols in the presence of electroconductive additive. The metals may be Co
, etc. The conductive additive may be lithium chloride
, quaternary ammonium halide, or other. Some examples of metal alkoxides obtained by this technique: Ti(OCH(CH3)2)4, Nb2(OCH3)10, Ta2(OCH3)10, MoO(OCH3)4
2, Re2O3(OCH3)6, Re4O6(OCH3)12, and Re4O6(OCH(CH3)2)10.
Hydrolysis and transesterification
Metal alkoxides hydrolyse
with water according to the following equation:
MOR + H2O → LnM
2O + 2 ROH
where R is an organic substituent and L is an unspecified ligand
(often an alkoxide)
A well-studied case is the irreversible hydrolysis of titanium ethoxide:
+ 2 H2O → TiO2
+ 4 HOCH2CH3
By controlling the stoichiometry
properties of the alkoxide, such reactions can be arrested leading to metal-oxy-alkoxides, which usually are oligonuclear complexes. Other alcohols can be employed in place of water. In this way one alkoxide can be converted to another, and the process is properly referred to as alcoholysis (unfortunately, there is an issue of terminology confusion with transesterification, a different process - see below). The position of the equilibrium
can be controlled by the acidity
of the alcohol; for example phenols
typically react with alkoxides to release alcohols, giving the corresponding phenoxide. More simply, the alcoholysis can be controlled by selectively evaporating
the more volatile component. In this way, ethoxides can be converted to butoxides, since ethanol (b.p. 78 °C) is more volatile than butanol (b.p. 118 °C).
In the transesterification
process, metal alkoxides react with esters
to bring about an exchange of alkyl groups between metal alkoxide and ester. With the metal alkoxide complex in focus, the result is the same as for alcoholysis, namely the replacement of alkoxide ligands, but at the same time the alkyl groups of the ester are changed, which can also be the primary goal of the reaction. Sodium methoxide, for example, is commonly used for this purpose, a reaction that is relevant to the production of " bio-diesel
Formation of oxo-alkoxides
Many metal alkoxide compounds also feature oxo- ligands
. Oxo-ligands typically arise via the hydrolysis, often accidentally, and via ether elimination:
MOR → LnM
2O + R2O
Additionally, low valent metal alkoxides are susceptible to oxidation by air
Formation of polynuclear and heterometallic derivatives
Characteristically, transition metal alkoxides are polynuclear, that is they contain more than one metal. Alkoxides are sterically undemanding and highly basic ligands that tend to bridge metals.
Upon the isomorphic substitution of metal atoms close in properties crystalline complexes of variable composition are formed. The metal ratio in such compounds can vary over a broad range. For instance, the substitution of molybdenum
in the complexes Re4O6−y
allowed one to obtain complexes Re4−x
in the range 0 ≤ x
≤ 2.82 and Re4−x
in the range 0 ≤ x
Many metal alkoxides thermally decompose
in the range ~100–300 °C. Depending on process conditions, this thermolysis can afford nanosized
powders of oxide or metallic phases. This approach is a basis of processes of fabrication of functional materials intended for aircraft, space, electronic fields, and chemical industry: individual oxides, their solid solutions, complex oxides, powders of metals and alloys active towards sintering. Decomposition of mixtures of mono- and heterometallic alkoxide derivatives has also been examined. This method represents a prospective approach possessing an advantage of capability of obtaining functional materials with increased phase and chemical homogeneity and controllable grain size (including the preparation of nanosized materials) at relatively low temperature (less than 500−900 °C) as compared with the conventional techniques.